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Tuesday, December 5, 2017

Hybrid Technology in Honda Civic IMA

The Civic Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Hybrid System is based on an electric motor mounted between the engine and the transmission. This motor assists with extra torque which considerably reduces the vehicle’s pollution levels.

The Civic Hybrid Technology recovers and transforms the energy that is lost during deceleration and braking. This technology stores the electric power in order to assist the engine when electric power is required.

It should be noted that the engine uses two ignition coils per cylinder, as well as the variable distribution system VTEC.

The electric motor works at 158V 3-phase AC, and it is used to start the engine and also as a generator that charges the battery. That is to say, the electric motor acts as a starter motor and an alternator.

The 158V battery is formed by 20 modules of 6 cells, each one connected in series. Each cells voltage is 1.32V.

In contrast to its competitor the Toyota Prius, the Honda Civic cannot launch from standstill using only the electric motor. The use of the engine is needed to launch the car.

For the Civic to drive on electric power alone,
the vehicle speed needs to be between 20 km/h and 50 km/h (12 mph and 31 mph). In this case the system will decide if it requires assistance from the engine in accordance with feedback from the accelerator pedal.

In contrast to the Toyota Prius, the petrol engine does not stop turning while the car is driving.

The system is additionally provided with a 12 volt battery which is recharged by a converter located next to the inverter. The converter-inverter assembly is cooled by an electric fan in order to avoid overheating problems. In some models there is an additional alternator to provide the charging for this battery in the case of a failure.


During the startup, the engine is started by the electric motor. From then on, depending on the battery charge condition and the torque delivery need, this electric motor assists the engine to a greater or lesser extent.

It is under high load accelerations (e.g. in ascending slopes) when the electric motor delivers maximum assistance.
When driving at constant speed, the assistance level that the electric motor provides the engine depends on the battery charge condition.

When driving at high speed and with a low charged battery, the electric motor recharges the battery instead of assisting it.

During deceleration, the electric power is used to recharge the battery depending on its condition.


In case you have to carry out maintenance or repair work on the high-voltage circuit system, it is very important to turn the main battery switch on and place it to the “off” position. In this way, we disconnect the high voltage supply over the complete circuit.

 All safety precautions set out by the manufacturer should be referred to before conducting any repair work on this vehicle.

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Engine malfunctioning without recording of fault codes

On this occasion, we are going to repair a fault that affects the BMW 3 series with M57 and M57N diesel engine.


The engine malfunctions during different operating phases, for example, while accelerating, on starting the engine from cold and/or when travelling at a constant speed at low rpm.

After carrying out a diagnostic reading, no fault code can be seen recorded relating to the engine problems.

One of the causes of this anomaly is that there is a deterioration in the fuel rail sensor connector or in the sensor wiring.


To carry out a repair, check to see if a fault code has been recorded with a diagnostic tool. Then carry out an injector correction reading to verify that one of the injectors has an incorrect value and rule out possible problems. At this point, check that on moving the pressure sensor connector by hand, the engine provides an easily perceptible positive response.

After the above results, the connection problem is shown to be in the fuel rail pressure sensor. To resolve this incident, the fuel rail pressure sensor wiring should be removed and replaced with a specific kit from the manufacturer.

Thursday, November 9, 2017

Park assist

Park assist systems are designed to help the driver during parking manoeuvres. The most used systems are those with ultrasonic parking sensors or a rear camera.

Camera rear view

Ultrasonic parking system

This is based on the use of sensors installed in the bumpers distributed strategically to cover a wide area. These sensors are mounted on the rear bumper and optionally on the front and are controlled by a control unit. 

The system is activated automatically on engaging reverse gear, the sensors are activated and emit an ultrasonic pulse that travels through the air. If there is an obstacle, the ultrasonic pulse will rebound from it and return to the sensor which will detect the pulse and inform the control unit. The control unit makes the calculation of the distance to the obstacle based on the time elapsed between the emission and the reception of the pulse. The maximum detection distance is approximately 0.8 to 1 metre.

The control unit emits an acoustic warning so that the driver knows the distance of the obstacle. These warnings are transmitted through independent loudspeakers or through the vehicle's audio system. As the vehicle nears an obstacle, the repeat rate of the audible warning increases. When the object is less than 30 centimetres from the centre of the vehicle’s bumper, the acoustic warning will sound continuously. 

If the driver does not wish to use park assist, there is a switch for enabling or disabling the ultrasonic parking system. This is located in the cabin, generally in the centre of the dashboard or in the central console.

Rear camera system
This system uses a small video camera and a screen for displaying the images. 

The rear camera is located at the rear of the vehicle and strategically focused to assist parking. In the same way as the ultrasonic parking system, it is activated automatically on engaging reverse gear. 
This system uses a control unit which manages the system, which, if the vehicle also has the ultrasonic parking system installed, one unit may be used for both systems. 

The transmitted images are displayed on the video screen. This screen may be independent or may be shared with other systems, such as the navigation system. Lines are shown in the screen that determine fixed distances for assisting the driver when parking. The lines are green, yellow and red. The red line measures the distance between the rear bumper and 30 cm behind it, and the yellow line measures between 30 cm and 60 cm behind the bumper.

Parking space

measurement systems

This system measures the size of a parking space in comparison with the length of the vehicle. This system uses ultrasonic parking sensors that are located on the sides of the vehicle.

The measuring of an available space is activated when the system is selected with the switch, the speed of the vehicle is less than 20 km/h and the direction indicator of the measuring side is activated.

The screen will show different images depending on whether the space is ample for parking the vehicle, is just sufficient or is too small. 
The available parking space measurement system is deactivated in the following cases: 
• When the ignition is turned off. 
• When the reverse gear is engaged. 
• When the speed of the vehicle exceeds 70 km/h for more than one minute.
• 10 seconds after turning off the direction indicator. 
• When the electrical connection for the tow hitch is connected.
• On pressing the available space measurement switch for deactivating the system.

Automatic parking systems 

This assist system is an active function that aids the execution of the manoeuvres when reverse parking. The automatic parking system is capable of automatically steering the vehicle for parking. The only thing that the driver has to do in this case is operate the accelerator, clutch and brake pedals. Furthermore, the driver can retake control of the steering at any time he or she wishes to do so and cancel the automatic parking manoeuvre.

This system accurately measures, with the help of side ultrasonic sensors, the parking spaces and then carries out the manoeuvres to park the car in the space, without the driver having to use the steering wheel.

Ford is currently developing a fully assisted automatic parking system. This new system controls the steering, gear selection and forward and reverse movements for parking. Therefore, the driver can be inside or outside the vehicle during the parking manoeuvre.

This system requires a vehicle to have an automatic gearbox, using a gearbox called Powershift, which is capable of electronically controlling the forward and reverse gear changes without the physical intervention of the driver. 

Thursday, October 12, 2017

Timing belt kit CT 1077K2/WP2 for Opel, Alfa, Fiat, Saab, Chevrolet Various 1.6/1.8 models from 2003 onwards


The tensioning pulley supplied differs visually from the pulley fitted in the vehicle. 


ContiTech supplies two different versions of the tensioning pulley, with and without pin KM-6333. The two designs differ in their fitting, but they can both be used without reserve.


Variant 1 
The version without a pin has to be tightened clockwise initially using a 6mm hex key after mounting on the engine (20Nm + 120°) to enable the belt to be fitted. Once the hex key is removed, the tension is automatically set. 

Variant 2 
In the version with a prefitted pin, the pin is only withdrawn once the belt has been fitted. Here, too, the tension is then automatically set. 

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Sunday, October 8, 2017

AdBlue (part II)

After having started in the above mentioned topic in this blog (consult "AdBlue for passenger cars "), on this occasion, we intend to elaborate on the structure and operation of the analysed system adopted by the different manufacturers in their vehicles.

Each manufacturer "baptises" their NOx treatment system for the diesel engine with a commercial name, normally under the umbrella of the word “Blue”.

It is worth mentioning that some makes/brands, such as Volkswagen, Audi, and Seat do not assign any name that is visible in the vehicle logo.

Reducing agent:
As noted on previous occasions, the AdBlue reducing agent is based on an aqueous solution consisting of a 32.5% urea and 67.5% water. This compound is not dangerous to people or the environment.
However, included in the features of this product we highlight two peculiarities capable of generating problems:
-Due to its high water content it freezes at -11°C.
-In contact with the air, the Adblue tends to crystallize and can cause blockages in pipes and ducts.

Summary of the operation: 

As you know, the AdBlue reducing agent is dosed directly into the exhaust pipe thanks to the electronic injector. With the exhaust temperature, the additive is transformed into ammonia and enters the SCR reduction catalytic converter. This takes care of removing the NOx by chemical reaction, transforming them into nitrogen and water. The NOx sensor located at the output of the SCR checks there are no nitrogen oxides present at the output.

Features of the system 

Exhaust line:
In the exhaust line, manufacturers tend to use the same structure (injector, particulate filters and SCR). Here we find a difference in the French PSA group, who first mount the SCR and then the particulate filter.

Additive tank: 
Usually integrated into the tank is the pump-gauge, which is for measuring the volume of the tank and pumping the reducing agent at sufficient pressure to the exhaust pipe injector.
The assembly includes the following components:

- Reducing agent level sensor.
- Reducing agent pump
- Switch valve for the reducing agent.
- Reducing agent pressure sensor.
- Reducing agent temperature sensor.

Reducing agent level sensor: 
Determines the volume of AdBlue contained in the tank. Normally it discriminates between three volumes and there is no indicator “needle” on the instrument panel, the driver is warned via a warning or indicator on the multi-function display.
Electric pump for reducing agent: 
The pump sucks the additive from the tank and pumps it at a pressure of between 4 and 6 bar to the injector. This does not work continuously, it only works when it is necessary to inject additive. Some systems include a accumulator so there is immediate pressure at the start of the injection.

Switch valve for the reducing agent: 
The fact that the AdBlue freezes means that protection measures have to be incorporated into the additive circuit.
The switch valve is one of these measures. When the engine stops, the pump starts up and the switch valve changes the direction of flow of the reducing agent, collecting the liquid from the injector duct and draining it back into the tank.
Reducing agent pressure sensor:
This is a conventional pressure sensor which transmits the pressure information via a variable voltage signal.

Reducing agent pressure sensor 

Its signal ranges between 0.5 and 4.5 volts, the higher the pressure the higher the voltage.

Reducing agent temperature sensor: 
Of the NTC type, this temperature sensor is immersed in the additive reservoir. Its information is used to control the heating system for the additive system.

Heating circuit: 

To combat the problem of the product freezing, the additive circuits are protected by a heating system which starts up when the temperature is low.
The heating is distributed into three branches that can be activated independently:
-Additive pump heater: there is an electrical resistor inside the pump capable of heating the component.
-Tank heater: a resistor is immersed in the tank to prevent the stored AdBlue product from freezing.
-Reducing agent lines: the whole length of the pipe is protected by a heating resistance.
Reducing agent injector:
The additive process finishes when the reducing agent is dosed into the exhaust. The injector is controlled from the injection unit and when it opens it receives an electrical signal for its activation.

NOx sensor: 
After the SCR catalytic converter, the NOx sensor measures the efficiency of the system. If this compound is present at the output, the engine fault light comes on and indicates a fault in the SCR system.

Starting lock 
The EU VI anti-pollution regulations require that whenever a vehicle uses an additional reactive agent for treating exhaust gases, the engine starter can be locked whenever there is no reducing agent or any fault that could cause the vehicle to pollute more than specified by the standard.
As the reducing agent is used up the driver is advised with different alert levels:
Alert at 2400 km: this is the first indication, advises of the remaining range, once this alert has been given it is repeated every 100 km.
The yellow SCR system indicator lights up permanently.
1000 km indication: indicates the remaining range. Warns the driver that if the level is not reset it will not be possible to start the engine once it has stopped.
The warning is repeated every 50 km.
The SCR system indicator light is yellow and flashing.
Indication of absence of reducing agent: indicates prohibition on starting the engine.
The SCR system indicator is permanently red.

It is possible to cancel the engine start lock with the diagnostic tool in order to drive 50 km to take the vehicle to the workshop.

Generally, if the last warning has been given, the system requires an adaptation process with the diagnostic tool.

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Wednesday, October 4, 2017

AdBlue for passenger cars

On 1 September 2014, the Euro 6 European anti-pollution standards came into force, and on this occasion there were new stipulations relating to the reduction of emissions for light vehicles with a diesel engine. 
See where the change is:

(Comparison between the EURO 5 and EURO 6 standards)

As can be seen in the graphics, the new EURO 6 standard has evolved with the objective of substantially reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx).

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the diesel engine

The diesel engine, due to its operating characteristics, generates a high level of
NOx, as this gas is generated under high pressure and temperature conditions.

From some time now exhaust gas treatment systems have been used, one of the best known by professionals in the sector is the exhaust gas recirculation system EGR, this consists of reducing the creation of nitrogen oxides (NOx), by introducing burnt gases from the exhaust into the cylinder.

With the new emission limits required by EURO 6, many engines (especially larger capacity engines) will not achieve the target required by the standard.

AdBlue, the solution for NOx

This technology started in the industrial, agricultural and heavy machinery vehicle sector, and is the same system (with just small differences) that is currently installed in passenger cars and light commercial vehicles.

AdBlue is an additive in the form of an aqueous solution made up of 32.5% urea and 67.5% water. This is not a flammable product, it is safe to handle and in general is not a hazardous substance for people or the environment.

The components:

Additive tank: this has a capacity of approximately 20 litres and is usually located under the vehicle next to the fuel tank, it can also be located in the cavity left by the spare wheel.
Internally, the tank has a built-in pump, a level gauge and an electric heating system.
Injector: this is installed in the exhaust line, it is controlled electrically by the control unit and is responsible for dosing the additive directly into the exhaust.

SCR catalytic converter: This is a "Selection Catalytic Reduction" type converter, it is a ceramic monolith inserted in the exhaust pipe that can be located before or after the particulate filter.
SCR catalytic converter
Warning! The SCR catalytic converter does not have anything to do with the particulate filter:
The particulate filter (FAP) is responsible for removing the particulates.
The catalytic converter (SCR) is responsible for removing the NOx.

It facilitates the chemical reaction that will remove the nitrogen oxides generated by the combustion of the diesel oil.
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) sensor: this sensor can detect the presence of NOx. It is installed downstream of the SCR catalytic converter in order to verify that there is no NOx at its outlet.

If the AdBlue system malfunctions in any way and NOx is emitted, the sensor detects it and informs the system's control unit.

Nitrogen oxide sensor

The NOx sensor has an integrated electronic module (inseparable assembly).

Control unit:
this is the electronic unit that manages the system. Unlike in industrial and agricultural vehicles where this is a separate unit, in passenger cars, the AdBlue management functions are integrated into the same unit as that for engine control.


The operation of the system is very simple and with few complications.
The process is started when the exhaust gas is hot (approximately 200°C), from this moment the control unit activates the electric additive supply pump (fitted inside the tank), which ensures the correct supply of additive to the injector.

When the unit activates the injector's electric control, it dispenses the amount required into the exhaust pipe (approx 1 litre of additive every 1000 km).

A chemical reaction takes place inside the exhaust pipe and the additive (AdBlue) undergoes a transformation which produces ammonia (NH3).

The exhaust gases and the ammonia (NH3) enter the reduction catalytic converter (SCR), the ammonia reacts with the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and transforms them into nitrogen and water.

System settings:

The additive tank empties over the miles and the vehicle user will be informed via a message on the instrument panel that varies depending on the range.

AdBlue information displayed on the instrument panel

As you can see, if the driver ignores the warnings, eventually the starting of the engine will be prevented.

Depending on the manufacturer and the current warning level, the system will normally have to be reset by means of a suitable diagnostic tool (after filling the additive tank).

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Sunday, August 27, 2017

High idling speed accompanied by oil leaks, lack of power and fault codes on VAG 2.0 TFSI vehicles (post nr 17-006)


On some models from the VAG manufacturer with 2.0 TFSI (Turbocharged Fuel Stratified Injection) engine, with BWA, BPY and BYD engine management, it is likely that the following fault will be found:

Firstly, after repeated incidents, a list of recorded fault codes became evident in the engine control unit that could occur: 

P0507 – Idle control fault.
P2279 – Leak in the air intake system.

  • In this fault, constant oil leaks are identified at the rear of the engine and in the spark plug locations. It is possible that fuel may be found in the spark plug area due to a loosening of the cylinder head bolts as a result of excessive pressure in the lubrication circuit.
  • The valve intended to retain the crankcase vapours (PCV), that is joined to the cylinder head cover does not function correctly, specifically the internal membrane of the non-return valve. This PCV internal fault allows the turbo pressure to enter the oil vapour circuit.
  • The model of the crankcase oil vapour purge valve must be checked and the metal hose doser that runs from the turbocharger to the intake manifold. There are specific spares for these two parts to solve this fault.

A- Old model 
B- Modified model
Section affected of the hose that runs from the turbo to the intake manifold.

A- Old model
B- Modified model
C- Visual differences
View of the affected PCV modules.

 To correctly repair the fault, take the following steps:

1 - First, check for the existence of oil leaks at the rear of the engine as indicated at the beginning of this newsletter.
2 - Check the existence of fuel or oil from the engine's lubrication circuit in the spark plug area.
3 - Check the condition of the cylinder head bolts and retighten them to 10 Nm if necessary.
4 - Check the PCV model.
5 - Check the doser of the hose joined to the turbo and the intake manifold.
6 - Replace the affected turbo's metal hose and the PCV valve with the modified version with the appropriate part reference for each model:

Part references of the old model of the affected PCV:
·                     For all models: 06F129101E, 06F129101F, 06F129101K, 06F129101L, 06F129101N.
·                     The reference of the modified PCV model: 06F129101P.

Part references of the old model of the affected turbo hose:
·                      For all models: 06F103215A, 06F103213N, 06D103215A, 06D103213G.
·                      The part reference of the modified turbo hose model: 06F103215B or 06D103215A.

Note: The tightening of the new crankcase vapour recirculation valve (PCV) should be 4 Nm, and the coupling of the new hose to the turbo should be 9 Nm.

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